Technical specification

ECLAIR is a powerful platform for the automatic analysis, verification, testing and transformation of C and C++ programs. Applications range from coding rule validation, to the proof of absence of run-time errors, and to the specification of code matchers and rewriters based on both syntactic and semantic conditions. The extreme flexibility of ECLAIR allows it to be tailored for any software verification problem, and for any software development process. Because coding rules are specified in a very high-level language using a powerful library of services, it is easy to create project-specific coding rules.

ECLAIR is suitable for light verification tasks that can be run right on the developer's desktop, as well as for tough semantics-based analyses to be run in batch mode. ECLAIR is very flexible and highly configurable. It can support your software development workflow and environment, whatever they are. You can ask us to bend it to your precise needs or do that yourself.

ECLAIR is developed in a rigorous way and carefully checked also with extensive internal testsuites and industry-standard validation suites, and it is fit for use in mission- and safety-critical software projects: it has been designed from the outset so as to exclude false negatives unless the user’s configuration explicitly asks for them.

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Supported Applications

Here are some applications that run on top of ECLAIR.

Automatic Checking of Coding Standards

ECLAIR provides support for automatically checking conformance with respect to a number of widely used coding standards, among which:

  • MISRA C:2012;
  • MISRA C:2004;
  • MISRA C:1998;
  • MISRA C++:2008;
  • BARR-C:2018;
  • AUTOSAR C:2009;
  • CERT C;
  • CERT C++;

In addition to these, BUGSENG has developed checkers to verify conformance with respect to several other coding standards, including proprietary company standards and project-specific standards. Coding rules are enforced using very general and accurate checkers, which operate on the precise sequences of tokens and abstract syntax trees that are manipulated by the compiler. Coupled with the fact that ECLAIR always checks each rule in the appropriate context (at the token, declaration, translation unit, whole program or whole project levels), this makes sure that the checkers for decidable rules are exact (neither false positives nor false negatives).

ECLAIR can be configured to produce all sorts of violation reports:

  • for immediate or later browsing using popular IDEs like Eclipse, Microsoft Visual Studio, IAR Embedded Workbench®, Texas Instruments Code Composer Studio™, Keil μVision®, or any suitable editor (a very powerful, web-based browser is currently in beta-test);
  • for the automatic insertion into issue-tracking systems or any other database;
  • for the automatic production of compliance matrices required to meet industrial standards and guidelines such as IEC 61508, ISO 26262 (automotive), CENELEC EN 50128 (railway), DO-178B/C (aerospace), IEC 60880 (nuclear power), IEC 62304 and FDA norms (medical).


For assessing the complexity, readability and maintainability of software, ECLAIR can provide comprehensive metrics about the code including the fundamental set defined by the HIS Source Code Metrics document and many of the requirements of the SQALE Method quality model. These measures may be incrementally reported, showing exactly where in the code the value was computed, or aggregated (e.g., maximized, summed, averaged) over a single function, translation unit, program or the whole project.

Semantic Analysis

We have equipped ECLAIR with powerful constraint propagation, symbolic model checking, and abstract interpretation engines. Their combined use allows the realization of different compromises between computational complexity and precision, so that each user can select an optimal cost-benefit tradeoff with respect to her objectives. On the developer's desktop, quick analyses are the most appropriate; but when the alternative is between, e.g., proving absence of run-time errors by hand or by machine, 12 hours of computation time are preferable to a man-month of work: ECLAIR has been designed to support the entire spectrum between these two extremes.

Semantic Matcher and Patcher

ECLAIR can perform very sophisticated program transformations by automatically finding program regions in the source identified by syntactic and semantics-based criteria, optionally replacing the matching program fragment with a parametrized substitution.

Supported Platforms and Development Environments

ECLAIR can be used with just about any development environment. Thanks to its ability to intercept the toolchain components, it supports all sorts of makefile-based, script-based or hybrid build systems. ECLAIR can leverage the availability of computing resources by supporting parallel and distributed program analyses. Most popular C/C++ compilers and cross compilers are supported, including Code Warrior™, GCC, Green Hills®, IAR, Intel®, Keil Software®, Microsoft®, MPLAB®, Renesas Electronics, Texas Instruments™, clang/LLVM.

Proper Integration with the Toolchain

ECLAIR intercepts every invocation of the toolchain components (compilers, linker, assembler, archive manager) and it automatically extracts and interprets the options that the build system has passed to them. This allows for the seamless integration with any build system. Moreover, the user does not need to engage in error-prone activities such as:

  • specifying which files compose the application and where the right header files are located;
  • configuring the static analyzer so that the analysis parameters match the options given to the compilers (several options do affect the program semantics).

All this is automatic and supports build processes that involve the automatic generation of source files that depend on the configuration, without requiring the development and maintenance of a separated analysis procedure: with ECLAIR the existing build procedure can be used verbatim.

One of the key properties of ECLAIR is that it understands all the analysis-relevant options of the supported compilers. The language used to abstractly model such options is so powerful that adding support for a new compiler is no longer a problem.

Precise Parsing of Source Files

ECLAIR includes a state-of-the-art parser for C and C++ languages. In particular, for:

  • the pre-standardization K&R C dialect;
  • the standardized C languages (C90, C99 and C11);
  • the standardized C++ languages (C++98, C++03 and C++11);
  • the language extensions of the GNU C/C++ dialects;
  • the language extensions of the Microsoft C/C++ dialects.

The parser produces an accurate abstract syntax tree (AST) representing all of the information available in the analyzed code. Accuracy means, among other things, that:

  • the AST represents not only the explicit, but also all of the implicit language constructs in the source code: implicit type conversions, compiler-generated functions (e.g., not explicitly defined constructors), instantiations of function/class templates, etc.;
  • all language constructs are provided with precise location information, enabling the generation of reports pointing to the exact source of a violation.

Source location information is not only precise, but also thorough:

  • complete information is available for the chain of file inclusions and, orthogonally, for the chain of macro expansions that brought a lexical token to become part of the analyzed code;
  • the well-known difficulty of tracking problems in implicit template instantiations is solved presenting to the user complete yet easily readable information about the full instantiation chain.

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